Taharah (purification)

  1. It means being in a state of purification and cleanliness 
  2. One is physically purified from impurities called najis (filth) on his body, clothing and Immediate surrounding.
  3. One is spiritually purified from impurities called hadath 
  4. The lifting of these impurities will allow you to perform your solat, hence it is the condition if your ibadat  being accepted
  5. What are the items that can be used for purification?
    • Water
    • Other pure liquid
    • Any clean dry solid such as soil, stone or paper



Definition: being in the state of impure due to the condition one is in

There are 2 types of hadath

a. Major hadith

b. Minor hadath

Why do we need to be pure before worshipping?

  1. It is a unique requirement in Islam that before we offer ourselves in devotion to our God, we must enter into a state of ceremonial purity in which we have to wash ourselves and made our mental state properly prepared
  2. To help us to change our state of mind while worshipping 
  3. To unite our physical condition (clean from najis) and our mind 


Major Hadath 

  1. One is in a state of impure which requires Ghusl (obligatory shower) to be pure again
  2. Reasons of becoming impure

a. Menstruation 

b. Post-natal bleeding

c. Wiladah 

d. Sexual intercourse 

e. Emission of fluids  from both man (sperm) and women (sexual fluid)

f. Death except for martyr (a special topic later)

g. Upon becoming a Muslim / entering Islam


See section 1.6 Purificatory Shower below to purify from major hadath.


Minor Hadath

1. It is a state of impure which requires taking wudhu (ablution) to become pure again

2. If water is not available it can be replaced by Tayammum 

3. Reasons of becoming impure, that is wudhu’ is nullified



See section 1.5 Ablution below for more information and how to purify from minor hadath.


Sources of water

  1. River
  2. Sea
  3. Rain
  4. Well
  5. Dew
  6. Spring
  7. Snow


1.1 Water

1.1.1 Categories of Water

a. Mutlak or pure and purifying – water that can be used for drinking and  for cleaning (example: lifting the hadath, for istinjak, taking wudhu and cleaning najis)

a. The water has not been  contaminated with either clean elements (example perfume, milk, coffee)  or filthy elements (example urine, blood)

b. The water has been contaminated but the quantity is more than 230 litres and the water does not change its colour, smell and  taste, it can be used for drinking as well as for cleaning

c. If the quantity is more than 2 qullahs (230 litres) and one of the changes has taken place, the water can only be used for drinking and not for cleaning 

d. If the quantity is less than 2 qullahs (230 litres) and has been contaminated and whether or not changes has taken place, the water can be used only for drinking but not cleaning e.g. a cup of tea.


b. Musta’mal  – water that has been used for lifting the hadath and the quantity is less than 230 litres for example  collecting water that has been used to take wudhu 

a. The water cannot be used for cleaning

b. The water can be used for drinking or cooking

c. The water can only be used to clean things that are NOT affected by najis


c. Mushammas  – water that has been collected in a rusty metal container and it has left under very hot sun

a. It is not recommended (makruh) to use the water for drinking as well as for cleaning 


d. Mutanajis  - water  that contained najis (filth)

a. The water is less than 230 litres

b. The water has or has not change its colour, smell or taste

c. The water cannot be used for drinking or cleaning

d. If the water is more than 230 litres and the najis has caused changes in either smell, colour and taste, the water cannot be used for drinking or cleaning




 1.2 Tanning Hides and Bones


 1.3 Using Containers



1.4 The Toothstick




1.5 Ablution

1.5.1 Obligatory Actions

 Mandatory integrals (rukun) of ablution

  1. Intention. Time of intention is when washing the face
  2. Washing the entire face
  3. Washing the whole arms until the elbows
  4. Wiping a part of the head wetting at least a single hair with wet hand
  5. Washing the feet including the ankle
  6. Doing the above in sequence



1.5.2 Recommended Actions


Recommended acts (sunnah) of  ablution

  1. To recite bismillah at the start
  2. Washing both hands 3 times before starting
  3. Brushing the teeth
  4. Guggling
  5. Washing the nostrils
  6. Combing thick beard with wet fingers
  7. Wiping the whole head with wet hands
  8. Rubbing between fingers and toes
  9. Wiping the ears inside and outside using new water
  10. To repeat the mandatory integrals and recommended acts 3 times
  11. To start with right part in preference over the left part
  12. Rubbing while wetting the parts
  13. Doing the actions without long pause i.e. before the previous part dries or 
  14. Exceeding the wiping the boundary of the head, elbows and  ankles
  15. Moderate use of water
  16. Facing the qiblat
  17. Refrain from talking during ablution
  18. Say the du'a after completion i.e. اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لآّاِلَهَ اِلاَّاللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَشَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَاَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدًاعَبْدُهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ. اَللهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِىْ مِنَ التَّوَّابِيْنَ وَاجْعَلْنِىْ مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِيْنَ 



Offensive (makruh) acts of ablution

  1. Excessive use of water
  2. Starting with left instead of right
  3. Drying the parts that have been wiped
  4. Splashing the face with water
  5. Washing or wiping more than  3 times
  6. Getting the assistance of someone else for no valid reason
  7. Excessive guggling or washing the nostrils during fasting


1.5.3 Cleaning Oneself



a. Cleaning oneself the impurities that come out of one’s  private parts (the front and the back)

b. It includes the faeces and the urine

c. It does not include the gas

d. It is obligatory to clean the private area


Items that can be used for cleaning

a. Water

b. Any clean, dry, solid substance, able to remove the impurities  such as stones,  toilet tissues, bark of trees or dry leaves

c. Anything that is sharp and smooth (glass), edible (dry bread), deserves respect (has quranic verses written on it) is not allowed to be used


Conditions for cleaning with water

1. The private part is clean until the smell, colour and feel of impurities  is gone

2. Confident that the area is clean and it is recommended to wash the area with the left hand


Conditions for cleaning with solid substance

  1. Solid substance refers to the above definition
  2. Najis has not moved from its original area, that is it has reached other part of the body
  3. Najis has not dried
  4. There is no other foreign items that stick on the private parts
  5. Najis need to be cleaned at least with 3 solid substances or 3 different part of the solid substance
  6. If it is still not cleaned, more solid substance need to be used 







1.5.4 Relieving Oneself

Adab or manners of answering the call of nature

  1. It is recommended to clean using uneven numbers example 3x, 5x
  2. It is recommended to enter the bathroom with your left foot.
  3. Say: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبْثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ (O Allah I seek refuge with you from the male and female devils) 
  4. Exit with your right foot first and to say:   غُفْرَانَكَ (I seek your forgiveness)  
  5. It is  recommended to praise Allah for getting rid of the illness ‘Praise be to Allah that has dispose the illness from my body and has given me good health’
  6. It is disliked to relief yourself  in the roadways,  in the shade where people gather and talk, under trees and other similar locations
  7. It is recommended to relieve oneself away from people so that the smell does not reach people
  8. It is dislike to relieve oneself into still water unless the water is in abundant
  9. It is dislike to relieve oneself  into animal holes
  10. It is disliked to face or have one’s back toward the Qibla while relieving oneself in open lands. If one is in a building, it is permissible
  11. It is dislike to relieve oneself in the open if there is no barrier or screen to hide oneself 
  12. It is dislike to touch one’s sexual organ with their right hand or clean it with their right hand, when relieving oneself
  13. It is dislike to speak while in the bathroom, unless there is a need
  14. It is dislike to enter the bathroom with anything  containing the name of Allah or verses of Quran
  15. It is recommended to wear slipper or similar when entering the toilet




1.5.5 Ablution Invalidators

 Reasons of becoming impure, that is wudhu’ is nullified

a. Anything that exits from the front or rear private parts

1. Excretion

2. Urine

3. Wind

4. Blood

5. Other solids


b. Loss of sanity that is the loss of the ability to distinguish right or wrong

1. Through insanity

2. For being  unconsciousness

3. For falling asleep. If he/she sleeps with his/her bottom firmly seated  to prevent the breaking of wind, he/she is still pure

4. Others


c. Skin contact between a man and woman who is not the mahram (person you cannot marry because of blood relation)

1. Both man and woman become impure

2. You are still in a pure state  if you  touch children that has not reach puberty

3. You become impure if you touch old man or woman that has lost his or sexual desire

4. You are still in a pure state if you accidentally touch the hair, teeth and nails 


d. Touching human private parts of yourself or others with either  the palms of your hands or the flat surfaces of your fingers


You are still in a pure state if:

1. Daydreaming

2. Drowsing  where you can still hear the words of those present  even though you cannot understand it

3. If the private part is touched with the back of the hand







1.6 Purificatory Shower

1.6.1 What Necessitates the Purificatory Shower

 Reasons of becoming impure

a. Menstruation 

1. Menstruation may begin as early as 9 years old

2. It is the dirty blood that comes out of a female womb

3. Obligatory shower is required once bleeding  stops

4. Minimum  period  of discharge is 24 hours 

5. Maximum period  of discharge is 15 days 

6. Normal time of discharge is 6 – 7 days

7. Minimum break between menstruations  is 15 days

8. Discharge after 15 days  is called istihadah, (chronic vaginal discharge) or illness blood and the lady is required to perfom solat and other amal (refer below what to do next)

9. The colour of menstruation blood is dark red, dark yellow or brown

10. Obligatory shower has to be done when the menstruation is completed


b. Post-natal bleeding

1. It refers to the blood that comes after delivering a baby

2. Minimum period of discharge is a second  

3. Maximum period of discharge is 60 days 

4. Obligatory shower need to done when the bleeding stops


c. Wiladah 

1. The period after giving birth

2. The child is born in a dry state, that is there is no post-natal bleeding

3. Obligatory shower is done as soon as possible


 d. Sexual intercourse 

1. The head of penis  enters the  vagina 

2. whether sperm is ejaculated or not


e. Emission of fluids  from both man (sperm) and women (sexual fluid)

1. Due to pleasure

2. Wet dream

3. Involuntarily

f. Death except for martyr (a special topic later)

g. Upon becoming a Muslim / entering Islam


1.6.2 Obligatory Actions

What are the mandatory integrals (rukun) of the obligatory shower

1. Intention

Example: I intend to perform my obligatory shower because of Allah ta ‘ala

2. To wash: 

a. all of the exposed skin

b. the private areas that are exposed when squatting to relieve oneself

c. the hair including the roots

d. Under the nails 

e. Ears


1.6.4 Recommended Actions

What are recommended acts when performing the obligatory shower

  1. Wash both hands 
  2. Clean the private areas using the left hand
  3. Take wudhu’
  4. To wet the hair with the fingers and wash with water
  5. To wash the right side first
  6. Rubbing the body
  7. Wash the whole body including the folded areas such as the ears, the lower abdomen, the navel and under-arms
  8. To wash 3 times








1.6.4 Recommended Showers


The shower is recommended for 

  1. Attending the Friday prayer
  2. Eidul Fitr at the end of Ramadhan 
  3. Eidul Adha on the 10th of Dzulhijjah
  4. After washing the dead (it is recommended to take wudhu’ after touching the corpse)
  5. After recovering one’s sanity or regaining consciousness after having lost it
  6. During the sun or moon eclipse if attending the prayer
  7. Before entering the state of ihram
  8. When entering Makkah
  9. For standing at ‘Arafa
  10. For each day stoning at Mina


a. One obligatory shower can have more then one intention (niat) for example to lift major hadith as well as to perform Friday prayer

b. If only one intention is made the shower is counted for that one but not the other




1.7 Wiping Over Khuff






1.8 Dry Ablution (tayammum)

Reasons for tayammum

  1. Lack of water or water is available but the water is needed for drinking.
  2. Water is available but have to travel a long distance and prayer may be missed
  3. Suffering from an ailment which can become worse if in contact with water


1.8.1 Conditions

Conditions for tayammum to be valid

  1. Done within the prayer period only. 
  2. Seeking water after the start of the prayer period
  3. Using clean earth
  4. Knowing the qiblat before tayammum


1.8.2 Obligatory Actions

Mandatory integrals (rukun) of tayammum

  1. Intention
  2. Wiping the face and the arms until the elbows using different strikes of earth for face and arms
  3. Following the above sequence


1.8.3 Recommended Actions

Recommended (sunnah) acts of tayammum

  1. Similar to those recommended for ablution
  2. Spreading the fingers when striking the earth
  3. Using thin layer of earth that sticks on the palms


1.8.4 Invalidators

Nullification of tayammum

  1. Similar to those that nullifies ablution
  2. Presence of water
  3. Able to use water for those with ailments
  4. Leaving the fold of Islam


1.8.5 Splints

Someone with a splint (because of injury) wipes his wet handover the splint (or cast or bandage), perform dry ablution and the prays. He is not required to repeat the prayer if the splint was applied while he was in a state of ritual purity, and the splint is not on the limbs upon which the dry ablution is made.


1.8.6 Dry Ablution and Prayers

Tayammum is only for 1 obligatory prayer only. It can also be a substitute for ghusl (mandatory shower)







1.9 Types of Filth (najis)

Classification of filth

1. Light najis

a. Refers to urine of baby boy, less than 2 years old and has not taken any solids

2. Heavy najis

a. Refers to najis related to pigs and dogs and the offspring of both of them or one of them (example a dog married a cat)

b. Faeces, urine, meat, skin of dogs and pigs and babies from either of them and /or one of them

c. Touching dog when either the dog or the hand is wet

d. Touching pig either the pig or hand is dry or wet

3. Medium najis

a. Refers to other najis besides the above 2 categories

b. Blood that pours  from the slaughtered animal body (that is permissible to eat its meat)

c. Blood from  menstruation, rectal bleeding and bleeding from sexual organ

d. Blood of meat of any animal that is unlawful to eat is Najis

e. Pus

f. Vomit

g. Faeces

h. Urine

i. Mazi (a white sticky fluid discharged when  thinking about intimate relations)

j. Wadi (a thick white fluid discharged after urination)

k. Intoxicating liquid

l. Dead animal that is not slaughtered in the Islamic way

m. Milk and sperm from non-halal animals


Elements that are not najis

a. Mani (semen) of  is not Najis

b. The blood of animals that is not runny (bees,  ants, etc.) is not Najis

c. Blood that stays in the meat after slaughter is not najis

d. Human blood is clean

e. Touching dry dog  with dry hand 

f. Any body parts of animal being taken when it is alive e.g. skin, wool









1.9.1 Excusable Filth


1.9.2 Animals


1.9.3 Removing Filth

How to clean the najis

Light najis 

a. Just  sprinkle  the affected area with pure water


Heavy najis 

a. Firstly clean the affected area or utensil to get rid of the smell, colour and taste of the najis

b. Wash the affected part 7 times with pure  water  and one of them is mixed with clean soil

c. Dry foods that has been licked by dogs – throw away that’s being touched and what surrounds


Medium najis

 a. Clean the affected area with pure water (mutlak water) until the smell, colour and taste of the najis  has disappeared

b. If the smell, colour and taste would not go away after washing thoroughly, it is excused.

c. If najis is suspect to be present but it is not detected by means of colour, smell or feeling (e.g. Urine that has dried up) – just pour water above the suspected area

d. If najis is visible and the smell, colour and feel is obvious, pour water, wash, scrape, wipe or clean the affected area. If the smell and colour persists, ignore it.


1.9.4 Vinegar



1.10 Menstruation and Postnatal Bleeding

 Types of blood that exits from the vagina:

  1. Menstrual blood
  2. Postnatal bleeding
  3. Irregular bleeding (istihadah) i.e. blood that exits outside the menstruation period


1.10.1 Actions Unlawful Without Ritual Purity

Unlawful actions: 

  1. prayer
  2. fasting
  3. reciting the Quran
  4. touching and carrying the Quran
  5. entering the mosque
  6. circumambulating the Kaabah
  7. sexual intercourse
  8. seeking sexual enjoyment from the area between the woman's navel and knees




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